By Julio de Paula Peter Atkins
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Volume 1: Thermodynamics and Kinetics; ISBN 1-4292-3127-0
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2. In all cases (both for base and derived quantities), the units may be modiﬁed by a preﬁx that denotes a factor of a power of 10. The Greek preﬁxes of units are upright (as in μm, not μm). 3. Examples of the use of these preﬁxes are 1 nm = 10−9 m 1 ps = 10−12 s 1 μmol = 10−6 mol The kilogram (kg) is anomalous: although it is a base unit, it is interpreted as 103 g, and preﬁxes are attached to the gram (as in 1 mg = 10−3 g). Powers of units apply to the preﬁx as well as the unit they modify 1 cm3 = 1 (cm)3 = 1 (10−2 m)3 = 10−6 m3 Note that 1 cm3 does not mean 1 c(m3).
In an ideal system (as will be explained in Chapter 5) the interactions between molecules in a mixture are all the same. In a perfect gas not only are the interactions all the same but they are in fact zero. Few, though, make this useful distinction. 974°C). Note that in this text T invariably denotes the thermodynamic (absolute) temperature and that temperatures on the Celsius scale are denoted θ (theta). The properties that deﬁne the state of a system are not in general independent of one another.
C) The equipartition theorem provides a way to calculate the energy of some systems. 5 The relation between molecular and bulk properties Rotational We make frequent use of the apparently universal law of nature that energy is conserved; that is, energy can neither be created nor destroyed. Although energy can be transferred from one location to another and transformed from one form to another, the total energy is constant. 8) Translational E = E k + Ep Fig. 4 The energy level separations (expressed as wavenumbers) typical of four types of system.
Atkins' Physical chemistry by Julio de Paula Peter Atkins