By Gill Hopper
Why do ladies examine artwork and why do ladies turn into basic academics? This e-book examines and divulges the robust impact of the kin, the varsity and the country in shaping girl id and developing notions of gender appropriateness. It additionally discusses the prestige of artwork in school and the location of girls artists in society.
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Extra resources for Art, Education and Gender: The Shaping of Female Ambition
Low cultural capital, on the other hand, becomes a feature of the working-class. Within this social field, interestingly, women are not necessarily grouped below the authority of men (as largely reflected in the workplace), but positioned across the whole field. This placement can be explained in part by Bourdieu’s idea that ‘hierarchies of class and “race” are hierarchies which also separate women from each other in social space’ (Fowler, 2000: 38). According to Fowler (1997: 4), Bourdieu believed that ‘an elaborate set of gender meanings has actively sustained working-class lack of Identity 27 choice’, particularly the construct of masculinity which ‘has one of its last refuges in the identity of the dominated classes’ (Bourdieu, 1993c: 4 cited in Fowler, 1997: 4).
Treated as aesthetic (or sex) object, women pay constant attention to everything concerned with their appearance, and within the field of domestic labour ‘naturally’ take charge of equivalent aesthetics, including the public image and social appearances of family members, including their husbands. The home or private space as a site of particular female power and influence is ‘allowed’ by the male, who largely inhabits the more (masculine) public world and whenever possible avoids domestic responsibility (Lyonette, 2015).
So long as women offer sexual, economic, political, and intellectual subordination to men, they are permitted to share the power of their class to exploit women and men of lower classes. (Fehr, 1993: 10) However, as Fehr (1993) also acknowledges, it is hard for women teachers, who have some (localised) power – albeit mainly over children and how they ‘manage’ and educate those children – to see themselves as oppressed. Femininity and the body In her little known 1970s feminist study of typical masculine and feminine body posture, (Let’s Take Back Our Space, 1979 cited in Frieze magazine online Issue 150, October 2012), German photographer 34 Art, Education and Gender Marianne Wex documented male and female posture differences in a series of over two thousand street photographs mixed with images taken from newspapers and advertisements, which she categorised according to body language.
Art, Education and Gender: The Shaping of Female Ambition by Gill Hopper