By Jeffrey H. Miller
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The purple flower color in the F1 generation is identical with that in the purple-flowered parental plants. Next, Mendel selfed the F1 plants, allowing the pollen of each flower to fall on its own stigma. He obtained 929 pea seeds from this selfing (the F2 individuals) and planted them. Interestingly, some of the resulting plants were white-flowered; the white phenotype, which was not observed in the F1, had reappeared in the F2. He inferred that somehow “whiteness” must have been present but unexpressed in the F1.
Gametes, however, are haploid, containing one chromosome set. Gametes are produced by specialized cell divisions in the diploid cells in the germinal tissue (ovaries and anthers). The nucleus also divides during these specialized cell divisions, in a process called meiosis. Highly programmed chromosomal movements in meiosis carry each allele of a chromosome pair to a separate gamete. In meiosis in a heterozygote A/a, the chromosome carrying A is pulled in the opposite direc- 44200_02_p27-72 3/2/04 11:37 AM Page 36 36 Chapter 2 • Patterns of Inheritance tion from the chromosome carrying a; so half the resulting gametes carry A and the other half carry a.
Assume that we have two plants of genotypes A/a ; b/b ; C/c ; D/d ; E/e and A/a ; B/b ; C/c ; d/d ; E/e. From a cross between these plants, we want to recover a progeny plant of genotype a/a ; b/b ; c/c ; d/d ; e/e (perhaps for the purpose of acting as the tester strain in a testcross). To estimate how many progeny plants need to be grown to stand a reasonable chance of obtaining the desired genotype, we need to calculate the proportion of the progeny that is expected to be of that genotype. If we assume that all the gene pairs assort independently, then we can do this calculation easily by using the product rule.
An Introduction to Genetic Analysis by Jeffrey H. Miller