Aerothermodynamik German - download pdf or read online

By Oertel, Herbert

ISBN-10: 354057008X

ISBN-13: 9783540570080

ISBN-10: 3937300783

ISBN-13: 9783937300788

Dieses Buch wendet sich an Studenten der Ingenieurwissenschaften und Ingenieure der Raumfahrtindustrie und der Energieverfahrenstechnik. Es verkn?pft die klassischen Gebiete der Aerodynamik mit der Nichtgleichgewichts-Thermodynamik hei?er Gase. Am Beispiel des Wiedereintritts einer Raumkapsel in die Erdatmosph?re werden die aerothermodynamischen Grundlagen und numerischen Methoden zur Berechnung des Str?mungsfeldes der Raumkapsel im gaskinetischen und kontinuumsmechanischen Bereich der Wiedereintrittstrajektorie behandelt. Am Beispiel von Raumfahrtprojekten werden die Methoden entwickelt. Die Autoren sind anerkannte Spezialisten f?r dieses Fachgebiet.

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Example text

K+ here is the deposition rate, and d is the atomic height. 23K (a) in the normal and (b) in the semi-logarithmic plots [198]. H here is proportional to the chemical potential difference Ap. 5 [198]. Part 111. Kinetic-Limited Growth 58 Exercise: When the nucleation rate J is very slow or the step advancement velocity v is very fast, there is only a single nucleus during the layer growth. Then the normal growth rate V differs from multinucleation case. Calculate the normal growth rate V of a surface with an area 5’.

When the supersaturation increases, nucleation becomes important. Also for a perfect crystal without dislocation, nucleation controls the crystal growth. In this section thc growth rate of a crystal by nucleation mechanism is studied f l 2 , 80, 691. The formation of a two-dimensional (2D) nucleus increases the free energy as - Apnp2 + 2app = - A p . 1) where p is the radius of the 2D nucleus, Ap = p~ - cis the chemical potential gain by the crystallization, 522 the arca of a nucleating atom, /3 the step free energy per length and assumed to be isotropic hcre.

1) r = v-' e x p ( ~ d / ~ ; B ~ ) . By denoting the adatom density as c ( x ,y), the probability that a lattice sitc (z, y) is occupied by an adatom at a timc t is c ( x ,y; t)&. The number of adatoms cvaporating within a time intcrval At is given by c(x,y; t)R2. At/r. On the other hand, an adatom hops to one of thc neighboring sites during its lifctimc. For the random walk of the adatom from one adsorption sitc to the other it has to cross over the activation energy or energy barrier Esd, and the probability of hopping to the neighboring sitc is w = vexp(-E,,l/knT).

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Aerothermodynamik German by Oertel, Herbert


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