By Teresa J. Bandosz
Activated Carbon Surfaces in Environmental Remediation offers a entire precis of the environmental functions of activated carbons. so one can comprehend the elimination of contaminants and toxins on activated carbons, the theoretical bases of adsorption phenomena are mentioned. the consequences of pore constitution and floor chemistry also are addressed from either technological know-how and engineering views. each one bankruptcy offers examples of genuine purposes with an emphasis at the function of the carbon floor in adsorption or reactive adsorption. the sensible points addressed during this publication hide the large spectrum of functions from air and water cleansing and effort garage to battle fuel elimination and biomedical applications.
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Extra info for Activated Carbon Surfaces in Environmental Remediation
From this evidence, the apparent kinetic constant is an expression of the LangmuirHinshelwood type : »l + k2 ±l \RT where h are Arrhenius type preexponential factors, Ea the activation energy, Ez and E3 adsorption enthalpies and P,- the partial pressures. Steam activation is the most widely used method for producing activated carbons in the world. In terms of adsorption capacity, it easily reaches specific surface areas of 1000 m2 g"1 at 50% of activation conversion degree (regardless of carbonization yield), when an acceptable raw material with an initial ash content below 10% is used.
The other isotherm corresponds to the CNRl 15 heat treated at 1173 K. There is a clear reduction in adsorption capacity, due to the contraction brought about by the carbonization of this dilated material . 8 1 P/Po Fig. 18. Nitrogen adsorption isotherms of commercial NORIT CNR115 and its carbonized material at 1173 K. Reprinted from , with permission from Elsevier Fig. 19 shows the adsorption capacity attained with other precursors such as a bituminous and a subbituminous coal, vs. the heat treatment temperature and compared with wood .
18. Nitrogen adsorption isotherms of commercial NORIT CNR115 and its carbonized material at 1173 K. Reprinted from , with permission from Elsevier Fig. 19 shows the adsorption capacity attained with other precursors such as a bituminous and a subbituminous coal, vs. the heat treatment temperature and compared with wood . It is clear that phosphoric acid activation must only be applied to lignocellulosic materials since the coals hardly develop any porosity. 2000 1400 1800 White Oak BET Surface Area (m2/g) Subbituminous Coal Subbituminous 1200 1600 Bituminous Coal Bituminous 1000 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 - 200 0 0 100 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 HHT (°C) HHT(°C) Fig.
Activated Carbon Surfaces in Environmental Remediation by Teresa J. Bandosz