By Leo van den Berg
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Then individual railway lines were combined in a nationwide network. In contrast to the railway, the road system was generally of poor quality. Horses used as draft animals still provided the basic means of transport, as motoring was still in the future. Some steps were undertaken to prepare the economic integration of these countries; primarily this involved the industrialization of what had earlier been fully agrarian regions. Hence the incentive given to the alloca tion of new industries outside the existing industrial centres.
Cit. Stages of Urban Development 33 The modernization of industry involves the scrapping of obsolete factories. Small industrial plants disappear too. Production is concentrated in separate industrial quarters. Although this has a number of advantages, it does increase commuting dis tances, a circumstance women find particularly troublesome. Once this was realized, small industrial establishments were reintroduced in residential town quarters. The development of a network of services, the rising rate of housing construction, the specific features of industrial development, the reshaping of the layout of road networks to suit the development of motoring—all these factors contribute to the transformation of the internal structure of towns.
In terms of the objective functions of the actors as postulated in Chapter 2, it could be stated that—with work available and increasing—priority shifts to better housing and public amenities. These become available as a result of an increase in income, which individually and collectively is spent according to new preferences. The evolution of motorized transport is a decisive factor in the spatial changes of the town. Extended public-transport facilities and the introduction of buses and private cars which reach areas not connected with the network of trains and tramways widen the scope of residential location.
A Study of Growth and Decline. Urban Europe by Leo van den Berg