By Frances W. Zweifel
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Additional resources for A Handbook of Biological Illustration
Small objects are those that, though not microscopic, are so snlall that sonle magrlification is necessar!. to shon detail. hlicroscopic objects require considerable ~nagnification (as ~vitha compound microscope) to reveal detail. , the illustrator \\,ill Ilave deter~ninedthe dimensiorls of thc drawing to allo\\ for the reduction in pul~lication(see chap. 2). our subject arid adjust the measurements to suit tile desired reduction or enlargement of the Convenient ~lleasuringinstruments, in addition to the familiar inch or nlillimctcr rule, are calipers, simple di\,iders, and proportional dividers.
If possible, do not lift the pen from thc paper until the next junction or angle in the line. If you must break the dra~vnline at sorrle inconvenient point, you should continue by leading into the inked line in the same direction, touching the pen to the line very lightly and carefully just before the break in the line (fig. 21). This must be done with a swinging rrlotion or the point of junction will be obvious. 2 1 Continuing a broken inked line begin the new part without touching the old line and then fill in the gap with a finer pen (fig.
1, Reducing the amount of foreshortening b) uslng a telescope. grid in front of or behind the object to be illustrated and draizing on suitably marked graph paper, you can avoid much measuring and con+ puting of proportions. T h e telescope need not be expensive; a child's simple instrument will do. Mount the telescope firmly on a stand so that the eyepicce is at a convenient height. The object to be drawn is placed against a piece of graph paper held vertical to the long axis of the telescope or directly behind a sheet of clear Lucitc scored in a grid.
A Handbook of Biological Illustration by Frances W. Zweifel